How does Chediak-Higashi syndrome affect phagocytosis?


How does Chediak-Higashi syndrome affect phagocytosis?

Chédiak–Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that arises from a mutation of a lysosomal trafficking regulator protein, which leads to a decrease in phagocytosis. The decrease in phagocytosis results in recurrent pyogenic infections, albinism, and peripheral neuropathy.

What are the symptoms of Chediak-Higashi syndrome?

Symptoms of classic CHS include:

  • brown or light-colored hair with a silvery sheen.
  • light colored eyes.
  • white or grayish skin tone.
  • nystagmus (involuntary eye movements)
  • frequent infections in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes.

Why does Chediak-Higashi cause neutropenia?

Neutropenia is an almost constant feature of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS). There is evidence for a central mechanism of neutropenia. Ultrastructural studies of the bone marrow from a child with CHS showed marked autophagic phenomena within myeloid precursor cells and mature neutrophils.

How common is Chediak-Higashi syndrome?

Frequency. Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a rare disorder. About 200 cases of the condition have been reported worldwide.

What is defective in Chediak-Higashi syndrome?

Researchers believe that abnormal lysosome-like structures inside blood cells called platelets underlie the abnormal bruising and bleeding seen in people with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Similarly, abnormal lysosomes in nerve cells probably cause the neurological problems associated with this disease.

How is cyclic neutropenia diagnosed?

Diagnosis. A diagnosis of cyclic neutropenia is made based upon a detailed patient history and thorough clinical evaluation. A diagnosis may be confirmed by monitoring an individual’s neutrophil count twice or three times per week for six weeks.

What are the abnormal cytoplasmic inclusions in Chédiak Higashi?

The presence of giant organelles in the cytoplasm of pe- ripheral blood elements is diagnostic for the Chediak- Higashi syndrome. These abnormal cytoplasmic inclusions are found within neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lym- phocytes, monocytes, and platelets. Their fine structural characteristics differ.

Is cyclic neutropenia and autoimmune disease?

The most common is chronic benign neutropenia of childhood, which may be an autoimmune disease. Chronic idiopathic neutropenia in adults is also acquired. It occurs predominantly in adolescent girls and women, beginning at approximately age 15 and usually lasting, in terms of its initial onset, until the mid-30s.

Why does Chediak Higashi cause neutropenia?

Is Chediak Higashi fatal?

Chédiak–Higashi syndrome is usually fatal at a young age, although some patients can survive until age 20 or 30 years. These survivors are usually confined to a wheelchair by their neurological symptoms.

Is cyclic neutropenia life-threatening?

Individuals with cyclic neutropenia are abnormally susceptible to bacterial infections that often affect the skin, digestive (gastrointestinal) tract, and respiratory system. Such bacterial infections vary in severity and, in some cases, may result in life-threatening complications.

Is cyclic neutropenia an autoimmune disorder?