## What is Lenth PSE?

Lenth’s pseudo standard error (PSE) is based on the concept of sparse effects, which assumes the variation in the smallest effects is due to random error. Minitab calculates PSE using the following method: Calculates the absolute value of the effects. Calculates S, which is 1.5 * median of the effects in Step 1.

## What is t value in Pareto chart?

The Pareto chart shows the absolute values of the standardized effects from the largest effect to the smallest effect. The standardized effects are t-statistics that test the null hypothesis that the effect is 0. The chart also plots a reference line to indicate which effects are statistically significant.

**What is main effect plot?**

A main effects plot is a plot of the mean response values at each level of a design parameter or process variable. One can use this plot to compare the relative strength of the effects of various factors.

### How do you draw a probability plot?

How to Draw a Normal Probability Plot

- Arrange your x-values in ascending order.
- Calculate fi = (i-0.375)/(n+0.25), where i is the position of the data value in the. ordered list and n is the number of observations.
- Find the z-score for each fi
- Plot your x-values on the horizontal axis and the corresponding z-score.

### How do you read the main effect plot in Minitab?

Interpret the key results for Main Effects Plot

- When the line is horizontal (parallel to the x-axis), there is no main effect present. The response mean is the same across all factor levels.
- When the line is not horizontal, there is a main effect present. The response mean is not the same across all factor levels.

**What is difference between histogram and Pareto chart?**

A Pareto chart is just like a histogram except the bins are organised from highest frequency to lowest. A Pareto chart also contains a line – this line shows the total cumulative frequency. It represents the Pareto philosophy, which is also known as the 80/20 rule. It does this by displaying events by order of impact.

#### What is normality test in Minitab?

Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > Normality Test. The test results indicate whether you should reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis that the data come from a normally distributed population. You can do a normality test and produce a normal probability plot in the same analysis.

#### What is the P value in probability plot?

The p-value is a probability that measures the evidence against the null hypothesis. Smaller p-values provide stronger evidence against the null hypothesis. Larger values for the Anderson-Darling statistic indicate that the data do not follow a normal distribution.

**What is normal PP plot?**

The normal probability plot (Chambers et al., 1983) is a graphical technique for assessing whether or not a data set is approximately normally distributed. The data are plotted against a theoretical normal distribution in such a way that the points should form an approximate straight line.